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Interdisciplinary CompetenceMolecular Diagnostics
Know how in the analysis of genetic material.
For the benefit of patients.

IllnessNeurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, NBIA; differential diagnosis


Short information

A comprehensive panel for Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, NBIA, differential diagnosis, containing 4 "core" genes, 8 "core candidate" genes and altogether 23 curated genes according to the clinical suspicion

Number of genes
16 Accredited laboratory test
Examined sequence length
18,0 kb (Core-/Core-canditate-Genes)
30,5 kb (Extended panel: incl. additional genes)
Analysis Duration
on request
  • EDTA-anticoagulated blood (3-5 ml)
Diagnostic indications



Gene panel

Selected genes

NameExon Length (bp)OMIM-GReferenz-Seq.Heredity
C19orf12459NM_001031726.3AD, AR
FTL528NM_000146.4AD, AR
KIF1A5073NM_004321.8AD, AR

Informations about the disease

Clinical Comment

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) represents a group of rare, genetic neurological disorders characterised by iron deposits in the basal ganglia, detectable by MRI e.g. in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. NBIA may occur from infancy to adulthood. The disease can progress rapidly or slowly, with long periods of stability. The symptoms can vary widely from case to case. The clinical manifestations relate to muscle function and/or progressive movement disorders, e.g. dystonia, choreoathetosis, spasticity as well as parkinsonism. Progressive dystonia can lead to loss of speech as well as uncontrollable tongue biting, blepharospasm and torticollis. In most forms of NBIA, eye disorders occur in addition such as retinal degeneration and optic atrophy. Cerebral and cerebellar atrophy are also commonly observed. Beta-propeller protein-associated and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration together account for three quarters of NBIA. In some forms, there are developmental delays, especially regarding the motor skills. Among the cognitive impairments, thinking, perception and other mental processes are often relatively spared. All monogenic inheritance patterns are observed. If NBIA is suspected on the basis of MRI findings, the "core candidate gene panel" includes more than a dozen genes, the broader differential diagnosis about twice as many. Although the molecular genetic yield can reach 85%, a negative DNA test result does not exclude the clinical diagnosis.

Reference: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK121988/


  • Alias: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, NBIA
  • Allelic: Acne inversa, familial, 3 (PSEN1)
  • Allelic: Hyperostosis cranalis interna (SLC39A14)
  • Allelic: Myopathy, distal, with rimmed vacuoles (SQSTM1)
  • Alzheimer disease, type 3 (PSEN1)
  • Alzheimer disease, type 3, with spastic paraparesis + apraxia (PSEN1)
  • Alzheimer disease, type 3, with spastic paraparesis + unusual plaques (PSEN1)
  • Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1U (PSEN1)
  • Cerebellar ataxia (CP)
  • Choreoacanthocytosis (VPS13A)
  • Dementia, frontotemporal (PSEN1)
  • Dystonia 28, childhood-onset (KMT2B)
  • Frontotemporal dementia +/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3 (SQSTM1)
  • Fucosidosis (FUCA1)
  • Glutaricaciduria, type I (GCDH)
  • HARP [Hyperprebetalipoproteinemia, Acanthocyt., Retinit. pigment., Pallidal degen.] syndrome (PANK2)
  • Hemosiderosis, systemic, due to aceruloplasminemia (CP)
  • Hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome (FTL)
  • Hypermanganesemia + dystonia 2 (SLC39A14)
  • Hypoceruloplasminemia, hereditary (CP)
  • Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy 1 (PLA2G6)
  • Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (ATP13A2)
  • L-ferritin deficiency, AD + AR (FTL)
  • Leukoencephalopathy with dystonia + motor neuropathy (SCP2)
  • Mental retardation, XL 72 (RAB39B)
  • NESCAV [NEurodeg., Spasticity +/- Cerebellar Atrophy or cortical Visual impairment] syndrome (KIF1A)
  • Neurodegeneration with ataxia, dystonia + gaze palsy, childhood-onset (SQSTM1)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (PANK2)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 2A, 2B (PLA2G6)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 3 (FTL)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4 (C19orf12)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5 (WDR45)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6 (COASY)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 7 (REPS1)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 8 (CRAT)
  • Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with brain atrophy (UBTF)
  • Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type IIC (KIF1A)
  • Paget disease of bone 3 (SQSTM1)
  • Parkinson disease 14, AR (PLA2G6)
  • Pick disease (PSEN1)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 12 (COASY)
  • Spastic paraplegia 30, AD (KIF1A)
  • Spastic paraplegia 30, AR (KIF1A)
  • Spastic paraplegia 35, AR (FA2H)
  • Spastic paraplegia 43, AR (C19orf12)
  • Spastic paraplegia 78, AR (ATP13A2)
  • Waisman syndrome (RAB39B)
  • Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (DCAF17)
Heredity, heredity patterns etc.
  • AD
  • AR
  • XL
  • XLR
  • Multiple OMIM-Ps
ICD10 Code

Bioinformatics and clinical interpretation

No text defined