©istock.com/Andrea Obzerova
Interdisciplinary CompetenceMolecular Diagnostics
Know how in the analysis of genetic material.
For the benefit of patients.

IllnessDiabetes mellitus, genetic


Short information

Comprehensive differential diagnostic panel for familial Diabetes mellitus comprising 12 guideline-curated and altogether 52 curated genes according to the clinical signs

Number of genes
49 Accredited laboratory test
Examined sequence length
23,7 kb (Core-/Base-Genes)
86,9 kb (Extended panel)
Analysis Duration
on request
  • EDTA-anticoagulated blood (3-5 ml)
Diagnostic indications




Gene panel

Selected genes

NameExon Length (bp)OMIM-GHeredity
ABCC84746AD and/or AR
GCK1398AD and/or AR
HNF1A1896AD and/or AR and/or Dig and/or Sus
HNF1B1674AD and/or Sus
HNF4A1359AD and/or Dig and/or Sus
INS333AD and/or AR
KCNJ111173AD and/or AR and/or Ass
NEUROD11071AD and/or AR
PDX1852AD and/or AR and/or Dig and/or Sus
WFS12673AD and/or AR
BSCL21197AD and/or AR
INSR4149AD and/or AR and/or Sus
LMNA1995AD and/or AR and/or Dig
PAX41056AD and/or AR
PAX61269AD and/or AR
PIK3R12175AD and/or AR
PPARG1518AD and/or Ass
SLC2A21575AD and/or AR
STAT32313AD and/or Mult

Informations about the disease

Clinical Comment

While a minority of diabetic patients are affected by either autoimmune (type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults), monogenic or secondary (endocrine) forms, >80% of diabetics suffer from type 2 (T2D). T2D likely represents a spectrum ranging from purely monogenic disease to forms in which deleterious effects of environmental factors predominate over genetic susceptibility. While permanent neonatal diabetes is at one end of the spectrum, T2D in the elderly may represent the opposite extreme. In 20% of cases of ND, the genetic cause remains unknown. Monogenic non-autoimmune diabetes also encompasses a wide spectrum of phenotypes, namely neonatal diabetes, diabetes-associated syndromal disease, mitochondrial diabetes and inherited familial forms of early-onset diabetes, Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Although mutations in at least 14 different genes are associated with MODY, the causative gene remains still unknown in 10% of these patients. The proportion of monogenic diabetes in patients diagnosed before the age of 45 is likely to be 3-5%.

References: : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1447/



  • Alias: Familial diabetes
  • Alias: Rare genetic diabetes mellitus
  • Allelic: Agammaglobulinemia 7, AR (PIK3R1)
  • Allelic: Aniridia (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Anterior segment dysgenesis 5, multiple subtypes (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Atrial septal defect 2 (GATA4)
  • Allelic: Atrial septal defect 9 (GATA6)
  • Allelic: Atrioventricular septal defect 4 (GATA4)
  • Allelic: Atrioventricular septal defect 5 (GATA)6
  • Allelic: Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1A (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Carotid intimal medial thickness 1 (PPARG)
  • Allelic: Cataract 41 (WFS1)
  • Allelic: Cataract with late-onset corneal dystrophy (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2B1 (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Coloboma of optic nerve (PAX6
  • Allelic: Coloboma, ocular (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 10 (POLD1)
  • Allelic: Deafness, AD 6/14/38 (WFS1)
  • Allelic: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2, AD (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 3, AR (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (SLC2A2)
  • Allelic: Foveal hypoplasia 1 (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Heart-hand syndrome, Slovenian type (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Hepatic adenoma, somatic (HNF1A)
  • Allelic: Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome (STAT3)
  • Allelic: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 (KCNJ11)
  • Allelic: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 5 (INSR)
  • Allelic: Hyperproinsulinemia (INS)
  • Allelic: Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy (AKT2)
  • Allelic: Immunodeficiency 36 PIK3R1)
  • Allelic: Keratitis (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Leprechaunism (INSR)
  • Allelic: Malouf syndrome (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Mandibuloacral dysplasia (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Morning glory disc anomaly (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Muscular dystrophy, congenital (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Neuropathy, distal hereditary motor, type VC (BSCL2)
  • Allelic: Obesity, resistance to (PPARG)
  • Allelic: Obesity, severe (PPARG)
  • Allelic: Optic nerve hypoplasia (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Persistent truncus arteriosus (GATA6)
  • Allelic: Renal cell carcinoma (HNF1A. HNF1B)
  • Allelic: Restrictive dermopathy, lethal (LMNA)
  • Allelic: Restrictive dermopathy, lethal (ZMPSTE24)
  • Allelic: Silver spastic paraplegia syndrome (BSCL2)
  • Allelic: Testicular anomalies with/-out congenital heart disease (GATA4)
  • Allelic: Tetralogy of Fallot (GATA4)
  • Allelic: Tetralogy of Fallot (GATA6)
  • Allelic: Ventricular septal defect 1 (GATA4)
  • Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3 (DYRK1B)
  • Ataxia, combined cerebellar + peripheral, with hearing loss + diabetes mellitus (DNAJC3)
  • Autoimmune disease, multisystem, infantile-onset, 1 (STAT3)
  • Currarino syndrome (MNX1)
  • Diabetes [panelapp] (PAX6)
  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent (HNF1A)
  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (INS)
  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 20 (HNF1A)
  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant, with acanthosis nigricans (INSR)
  • Diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone, susceptibility to (NKX2-2)
  • Diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone, susceptibility to (PAX4)
  • Diabetes mellitus, neonatal, with congenital hypothyroidism (GLIS3)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent (ABCC8)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent (HNF4A)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent (SLC2A2)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2 (HNF1A)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, association with (WFS1)
  • Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, late onset (GCK)
  • Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 1 (GCK)
  • Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 3, with/-out neurologic features (ABCC8)
  • Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 4 (INS)
  • Diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal 1 (ZPF57)
  • Diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal 2 (ABCC8)
  • Diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal 3 (KCNJ11)
  • Diabetes mellitus, type 2 (AKT2, NKX2-2, PAX4)
  • Diabetes mellitus, type II, susceptibility to (KCNJ11, PDX1)
  • Diabetes, permanent neonatal 2, with/-out neurologic features (KCNJ11)
  • Diabetes, type 2 (PPARG)
  • Diarrhea 4, malabsorptive, congenital (NEUROG3)
  • Encephalopathy, progressive, with or without lipodystrophy (BSCL2)
  • Fanconi renotubular syndrome 4, with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (HNF4A)
  • Histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (SLC29A3)
  • Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (LMNA)
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 1 (ABCC8)
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 3 (GCK)
  • Hyperphenylalaninemia, BH4-deficient, D (PCBD1)
  • Hypoglycemia of infancy, leucine-sensitive (ABCC8)
  • Immunodeficiency, common variable, 8, with autoimmunity (LRBA)
  • Immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy + enteropathy, XL (FOXP3)
  • Insulin resistance, severe, digenic (PPARG)
  • Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 1 (AGPAT2)
  • Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 2 (BSCL2)
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 2 (LMNA)
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 3 (PPARG)
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 4 (PLIN1)
  • MODY, type I (HNF4A)
  • MODY, type II (GCK)
  • MODY, type III (HNF1A)
  • MODY, type IV (PDX1)
  • MODY, type IX (NKX2-2)
  • MODY, type IX (PAX4)
  • MODY, type VI (NEUROD1)
  • MODY, type VII (KLF11)
  • MODY, type VIII (CEL)
  • MODY, type X (INS)
  • MODY, type XI (BLK)
  • MODY, type XIII (KCNJ11)
  • MODY, type XIV (APPL1)
  • Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features + lipodystrophy syndrome (POLD1)
  • Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy (ZMPSTE24)
  • Microcephaly, epilepsy + diabetes syndrome (IER3IP1)
  • Microcephaly, short stature + impaired glucose metabolism 1 (TRMT10A)
  • Microcephaly, short stature + impaired glucose metabolism 2 (PPP1R15B)
  • Mitchell-Riley syndrome (RFX6)
  • Pancreatic + cerebellar agenesis (PTF1A)
  • Pancreatic agenesis + congenital heart defects (GATA6)
  • Pancreatic agenesis 1 (PDX1)
  • Pancreatic agenesis 2 (PTF1A)
  • Primrose syndrome (ZBTB20)
  • Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (INSR)
  • Renal cysts + diabetes syndrome (HNF1B)
  • SHORT syndrome (PIK3R1)
  • Short stature, microcephaly + endocrine dysfunction (XRCC4)
  • Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (SLC19A2)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (HNF1B)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus, susceptibility to (NEUROD1)
  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (EIFAK3)
  • Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1)
  • Wolfram syndrome 2 (CISD2)
  • Wolfram-like syndrome, AD (WFS1)
  • Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (DCAF17)
Heredity, heredity patterns etc.
  • AD
  • AD and/or AR
  • AD and/or AR and/or Ass
  • AD and/or AR and/or Dig
  • AD and/or AR and/or Dig and/or Sus
  • AD and/or AR and/or Sus
  • AD and/or Ass
  • AD and/or Dig and/or Sus
  • AD and/or Mult
  • AD and/or Sus
  • AR
  • XLR
  • Multiple OMIM-Ps
ICD10 Code

Bioinformatics and clinical interpretation

No text defined