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Interdisciplinary CompetenceMolecular Diagnostics
Know how in the analysis of genetic material.
For the benefit of patients.

IllnessAtaxia, autosomal recessive; differential diagnosis

Summary

Short information

Comprehensive differential diagnostic panel for autosomal recessive ataxia comprising 6 guideline-curated core genes and in total 295 curated genes according to the clinical signs

ID
AP1070
Number of genes
106 Accredited laboratory test
Examined sequence length
31,4 kb (Core-/Core-canditate-Genes)
263,2 kb (Extended panel: incl. additional genes)
Analysis Duration
on request
Material
  • EDTA-anticoagulated blood (3-5 ml)
Diagnostic indications

NGS +

 

Gene panel

Selected genes

NameExon Length (bp)OMIM-GReferenz-Seq.Heredity
ANO101983NM_018075.5AR
APTX1029NM_175073.3AR
ATM9171NM_000051.4AR
FXN633NM_000144.5AR
MRE112127NM_005591.4AR
POLG3720NM_002693.3AR, AD
SETX8034NM_015046.7AR
SIL11386NM_022464.5AR
SPG72388NM_003119.4AR
TTPA837NM_000370.3AR
AAAS1641NM_015665.6AR
ABHD121197NM_001042472.3AR
ACO22343NM_001098.3AR, AD
AFG3L22394NM_006796.3AR, AD
AMPD22478NM_001368809.2AR
ARSA1530NM_000487.6AR
ATCAY1116NM_033064.5AR
ATP8A23567NM_016529.6AR
CA8873NM_004056.6AR
CACNA2D23438NM_001005505.3AR
CHMP1A591NM_002768.5AR
CLCN22697NM_004366.6AR
CLN51077NM_006493.4AR
CLN6936NM_017882.3AR
COQ8A1944NM_020247.5AR
COX20357NM_198076.6AR
CP3198NM_000096.4AR
CWF19L11617NM_018294.6AR
CYP27A11596NM_000784.4AR
CYP2U11635NM_183075.3AR
DARS21938NM_018122.5AR
DDHD22136NM_015214.3AR
DNAJC19351NM_145261.4AR
EIF2B1918NM_001414.4AR
EIF2B21056NM_014239.4AR
EIF2B31359NM_020365.5AR
EIF2B41569NM_015636.4AR
EIF2B52166NM_003907.3AR
EPM2A996NM_005670.4AR
EXOSC3828NM_016042.4AR
FLVCR11668NM_014053.4AR
FOLR1774NM_016725.3AR
GBA22784NM_020944.3AR
GJC21320NM_020435.4AR
GOSR2639NM_004287.5AR
GPAA11878NM_003801.4AR
GRID23024NM_001510.4AR
GRM13585NM_001278064.2AR
HEXA1590NM_000520.6AR
HEXB1671NM_000521.4AR
KCNJ101140NM_002241.5AR
KIF1C3312NM_006612.6AR
LAMA19228NM_005559.4AR
MARS21782NM_138395.4AR
MMACHC849NM_015506.3AR
MTTP2685NM_000253.4AR
NHLRC11188NM_198586.3AR
NKX6-2837NM_177400.3AR
NPC13837NM_000271.5AR
NPC2456NM_006432.5AR
OPA3540NM_025136.4AR
PAX61269NM_000280.5AR
PEX161011NM_004813.4AR
PEX7972NM_000288.4AR
PHYH1017NM_006214.4AR
PLA2G62421NM_003560.4AR
PMPCA1875NM_015160.3AR
PNKP1566NM_007254.4AR
PNPLA63984NM_006702.5AR
POLR3A4173NM_007055.4AR
POLR3B3402NM_018082.6AR, AD
PTF1A987NM_178161.3AR
RARS21737NM_020320.5AR
RNF2162772NM_207111.4AR
ROBO34161NM_022370.4AR
SACS13740NM_014363.6AR
SAR1B597NM_001033503.3AR
SEPSECS1506NM_016955.4AR
SLC25A461257NM_138773.4AR
SLC2A11479NM_006516.4AD, AR
SNX142841NM_153816.6AR
SPTBN27173NM_006946.4AR
SQSTM11323NM_003900.5AR
SRD5A3957NM_024592.5AR
STUB1912NM_005861.4AR, AD
SYNE126250NM_033071.4AR
SYT141860NM_001146261.3AR
TDP11827NM_018319.4AR
TDP21089NM_016614.3AR
TOE11488NM_025077.4AR
TPP11692NM_000391.4AR
TSEN21398NM_025265.4AR
TSEN34933NM_024075.5AR
TSEN541581NM_207346.3AR
TSFM1041NM_001172696.2AR
TTC19822NM_001271420.2AR
TWNK2055NM_021830.5Ass
TXN2501NM_012473.4AR
VLDLR2622NM_003383.5AR
VPS13D13236NM_015378.4AR
VRK11191NM_003384.3AR
VWA3B3885NM_144992.5AR
WDR731137NM_032856.5AR
WDR815826NM_001163809.2AR
WFS12673NM_006005.3AR
WWOX1245NM_016373.4AR

Informations about the disease

Clinical Comment

Ataxia is a cardinal symptom in cerebellar disorders but may also be an accompanying symptom of hereditary spastic paraplegias, hereditary polyneuropathies, neurodevelopmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Recessive ataxias often exhibit complex phenotypes, even more so than their dominant counterparts and may have several associated features, including neuropathy, pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement, oculomotor abnormalities, cognitive involvement, seizures, retinopathy, hypogonadism and many others. Some disorders have relatively predominant cerebellar involvement as compared to other neurological and non-neurological systems. Other complex motor or multisystem disorders show marked ataxia. Finally, there are disorders that occasionally present with ataxia, but the ataxia is a secondary feature. Certain disorders with minor or secondary ataxic components have not been included here, provided that ataxia is already prominent from the onset as an incidental symptom. In addition, ataxic disorders are allelic to other movement disorders, particularly spinocerebellar ataxias and hereditary spastic paraplegias. The ages at onset can vary from birth to (late) adulthood. Finally, there is a large phenotypic variability between patients from different families and even from a single family with the same mutated gene, depending on the nature of the mutation and its position in the gene. Other factors that influence age at onset and clinical course are likely the presence of modifying genes and environmental exposures. The DNA diagnostic yield is unknown, thus negative results exclude by no means a clinical diagnosis.

References: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1138/

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40673-017-0061-y

 

Synonyms
  • Alias: AR (cerebellar) ataxia
  • Allelic: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4, juvenile (SETX)
  • Allelic: Aniridia (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Anterior segment dysgenesis 5, multiple subtypes (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type (SYNE1)
  • Allelic: Breast cancer, susceptibility to (ATM)
  • Allelic: Cataract 41 (WFS1)
  • Allelic: Cataract with late-onset corneal dystrophy (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2B2 (PNKP)
  • Allelic: Chorea, hereditary benign (NKX2-1)
  • Allelic: Deafness, AD 6/14/38 (WFS1)
  • Allelic: Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, association with (WFS1)
  • Allelic: Enlarged vestibular aqueduct, digenic (KCNJ10)
  • Allelic: Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 12 (SLC2A1)
  • Allelic: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 28 (WWOX)
  • Allelic: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, somatic (WWOX)
  • Allelic: Foveal hypoplasia 1 (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3 (SQSTM1)
  • Allelic: GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 1, infantile onset, severe / childhood onset (SLC2A1)
  • Allelic: Glaucoma, normal tension, susceptibility to (OPA1)
  • Allelic: Heimler syndrome 2 (PEX6)
  • Allelic: Hemosiderosis, systemic, due to aceruloplasminemia (CP)
  • Allelic: Hex A pseudodeficiency (HEXA)
  • Allelic: Hydrocephalus, congenital, 3, with brain anomalies (WDR81)
  • Allelic: Hyperaldosteronism, familial, type II (CLCN2)
  • Allelic: Hypoceruloplasminemia, hereditary (CP)
  • Allelic: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy 1 (PLA2G6)
  • Allelic: Kahrizi syndrome [mental retard., cataract, coloboma, kyphosis, AR] (SRD5A3)
  • Allelic: Keratitis (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Leukemia, acute myeloid (TERT)
  • Allelic: Lymphatic malformation (GJC2)
  • Allelic: Lymphoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin, somatic (ATM)
  • Allelic: Lymphoma, mantle cell, somatic (ATM)
  • Allelic: Melanoma, cutaneous malignant, 9 (TERT)
  • Allelic: Metabolic syndrome, protection against (MTTP)
  • Allelic: Microcephaly, seizures, developmental delay (PNKP)
  • Allelic: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 4A, Alpers type (POLG)
  • Allelic: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 4B, MNGIE type (POLG)
  • Allelic: Myopathy, distal, with rimmed vacuoles (SQSTM1)
  • Allelic: Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (PNPLA6)
  • Allelic: Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)
  • Allelic: Optic atrophy 12 (AFG3L2)
  • Allelic: Optic atrophy 3 with cataract (OPA3)
  • Allelic: Optic atrophy 9 (ACO2)
  • Allelic: Optic nerve hypoplasia (PAX6)
  • Allelic: Ovarioleukodystrophy (EIF2B2, EIF2B4, EIF2B5)
  • Allelic: Paget disease of bone 3 (SQSTM1)
  • Allelic: Pancreatic agenesis 2 (PTF1A)
  • Allelic: Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8A, Zellweger (PEX16)
  • Allelic: Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8B (PEX16)
  • Allelic: Perrault syndrome 5 (TWNK)
  • Allelic: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia, AD 1 (POLG)
  • Allelic: Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 1 (TERT)
  • Allelic: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, type 1 (PEX7)
  • Allelic: Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis with neurologic defects (SLC2A1)
  • Allelic: T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, somatic (ATM)
  • Allelic: Thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 1 (NKX2-1)
  • Allelic: Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (POLR3A)
  • 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type IIIX (OPA3)
  • 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type V; cardiomyopathy, dilated, with ataxia [DCMA] syndrome (DNAJC19)
  • AR paraplegia 54 (DDHD2)
  • AR spastic paraplegia 56, complex form of disorder, ataxia not yet identified (CYP2U1)
  • AR spinocerebellar ataxia 12 (WWOX)
  • Abetalipoproteinemia (MTTP)
  • Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrimia syndrome (AAAS)
  • Alexander disease (GFAP)
  • Allelic: Parkinson disease 5, susceptibility to (UCHL1)
  • Aniridia, cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation (PAX6)
  • Ataxia + hypogonadism Methylmalonic aciduria + homocystinuria, cblC type (MMACHC)
  • Ataxia + oculomotor apraxia type 2, AOA2 (SETX)
  • Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (TTPA)
  • Ataxia, cerebellar, Cayman type (ATCAY)
  • Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia + hypoalbuminemia (APTX)
  • Ataxia, posterior column, with retinitis pigmentosa (FLVCR1)
  • Ataxia-oculomotor apraxia 4 (PNKP)
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM)
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder 1 (MRE11)
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder 1 (MRE11)
  • Behr syndrome (OPA1)
  • Boucher-Neuhauser syndrome [SCA, hypogonad. hypogonadism, chorioretinal dystrophy] (PNPLA6)
  • Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome 2 (SLC52A2)
  • Cerebellar ataxia (CP)
  • Cerebellar ataxia + hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (RNF216)
  • Cerebellar ataxia + mental retardation with/-out quadrupedal locomotion 3 (CA8)
  • Cerebellar ataxia + neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (RFC1)
  • Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, dysequilibrium syndrome 2 (WDR81)
  • Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, dysequilibrium syndrome 4 (ATP8A2)
  • Cerebellar atrophy with seizures + variable developmental delay (CACNA2D2)
  • Cerebellar hypoplasia + mental retardation with/-out quadrupedal locomotion 1 (VLDLR)
  • Cerebellofaciodental syndrome (BRF1)
  • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CYP27A1)
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 2 (TPP1)
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 5 (CLN5)
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6 (CLN6)
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, Kufs type, adult onset (CLN6)
  • Childhood ataxia with CNS hypomyelination/vanishing white matter disease (EIF2B1, -2, -3, -4, -5)
  • Choreoathetosis, hypothyroidism + neonatal respiratory distress (NKX2-1)
  • Chylomicron retention disease (SAR1B)
  • Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 4 (COQ8A)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 25 (MARS2)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 29 (TXN2)
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 3 (TSFM)
  • Complex phenotypic spectrum from Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy to ataxia SCA8 (SYNE1)
  • Cong. disorder of glycosylation, type Iq [coloboma, ichthyosis, brain + endocrine abnorm.] (SRD5A3)
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIn (SLC39A8)
  • Costeff syndrome (OPA3)
  • Developmental + epileptic encephalopathy 44 (UBA5)
  • Dyskeratosis congenita, AD 2 (TERT)
  • Dyskeratosis congenita, AR 4 (TERT)
  • Dystonia 9 (SLC2A1)
  • Epilepsy, ataxia, developmental delay, cerebellar atrophy (CACNA2D2)
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1A, Unverricht + Lundborg (CSTB)
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1B (PRICKLE1)
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 2A, Lafora (EPM2A)
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 2B, Lafora (NHLRC1)
  • Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 6 (GOSR2)
  • Friedreich ataxia (FXN)
  • Friedreich ataxia with retained reflexes (FXN)
  • GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 1, infantile, severe; syndrome 2, childhood onset (SLC2A1)
  • GM2-gangliosidosis, several forms (HEXA)
  • Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1 [CAMOS, Cereb. Ataxia, Ment. retard., Optic atrophy, Skin abn.] (WDR73)
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 15 (GPAA1)
  • Hyperekplexia 1 (GLRA1)
  • Hyperekplexia 2 (GLRB)
  • Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration (ACO2)
  • Infantile progressive ataxia + spastic paresis (PEX16)
  • Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine + pancreatic disease (PTRH2)
  • Joubert syndrome 30 (ARMC9)
  • Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS4; AD ataxia (SETX)
  • Laurence-Moon s.: chorioretinop, pituit. dysf., ataxia, periph. neurop., spastic paraplegia (PNPLA6)
  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 2 (GJC2)
  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 7, with/-out oligodontia and/or hypogonad. hypogonadism (POLR3A)
  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 8, with/-out oligodontia and/or hypogonad. hypogonadism (POLR3B)
  • Leukoencephalopathy with ataxia (CLCN2)
  • Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem, spinal cord involvement + lactate elevation (DARS2)
  • Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, EIF2B5)
  • Lichtenstein-Knorr syndrome (SLC9A1)
  • Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome [cong. cataracts, cereb. ataxia, progr. myopathy, ment. retard.] (SIL1)
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy (ARSA)
  • Methylmalonic aciduria + homocystinuria, cblC type (MMACHC)
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14, encephalocardiomyopathic type (OPA1)
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7, hepatocerebral (TWNK)
  • Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 2 (TTC19)
  • Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency (COX20)
  • Mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome, includes SANDO (POLG)
  • Mitochondrial spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy, SCAE (POLG)
  • Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6 (PMPCB)
  • Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (cong. with brain + eye anomalies), type A, 13 (B4GAT1)
  • Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (cong. with brain + eye anomalies, type A, 11 (B3GALNT2)
  • Myopathy, mitochondrial + ataxia (MSTO1)
  • Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport deficiency (FOLR1)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 2B (PLA2G6)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6 (COASY)
  • Neurodegeneration, ataxia, dystonia, gaze palsy, childhood-onset (SQSTM1)
  • Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, stress-induced, with variable ataxia + seizures (ADPRHL2)
  • Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, stress-induced, with variable ataxia + seizures (ADPRS)
  • Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, type VIB (SLC25A46)
  • Niemann-Pick disease type C2 (NPC2)
  • Niemann-Pick disease types C1 + D (NPC1)
  • Optic atrophy plus syndrome (OPA1)
  • Pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis (PTF1A)
  • Parkinson disease 14 (PLA2G6)
  • Parkinson disease 14, AR (PLA2G6)
  • Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4A, Zellweger (PEX6)
  • Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B (PEX6)
  • Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 9B (PEX7)
  • Polymicrogyria, bilateral frontoparietal (ADGRG1)
  • Polymicrogyria, bilateral perisylvian (ADGRG1)
  • Polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, cataract (ABHD12)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 10 (CLP1)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 11 (TBC1D23)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 12 (COASY)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1A (VRK1)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1B (EXOSC3)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C (EXOSC8)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D (EXOSC9)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2A, 4, 5 (TSEN54)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2B (TSEN2)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2D (SEPSECS)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2E (VPS53)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F (TSEN15)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 6 (RARS2)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 7 (TOE1)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 8 (CHMP1A)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 9 (AMPD2)
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia; epilepsy (RARS2)
  • Poretti-Boltshauser s. (cereb. dyspl., vermis hypopl., cysts, myopia, ret. dystr., eye mov.] (LAMA1)
  • Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, AD 3 (TWNK)
  • Refsum disease [disorders of peroxisomal alpha-, beta, omega-oxidation] (PHYH)
  • SESAME [SEizures, Sensorin. deafness, Ataxia, Ment. retard., Electrolyte imbalance] (KCNJ10)
  • Sandhoff disease, infantile, juvenile, adult forms (HEXB)
  • Sensible atactic neuropathy with dysarthria + ophthalmoplegia, SANDO (POLG)
  • Spastic ataxia 2 AR (KIF1C)
  • Spastic ataxia 3 AR (MARS2)
  • Spastic ataxia 5, AR (AFG3L2)
  • Spastic ataxia 8, AR, with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (NKX6-2)
  • Spastic ataxia, Charlevoix-Saguenay type (SACS)
  • Spastic paraplegia 15, AR (ZFYVE26)
  • Spastic paraplegia 39, AR (PNPLA6)
  • Spastic paraplegia 44, AR (GJC2)
  • Spastic paraplegia 46, AR (GBA2)
  • Spastic paraplegia 54, AR (DDHD2)
  • Spastic paraplegia 56, AR (CYP2U1)
  • Spastic paraplegia 63 [single family] (AMPD2)
  • Spastic paraplegia 7 complex forms; range of phenotypes including adult-onset ataxia (SPG7)
  • Spastic paraplegia 7, AR (SPG7)
  • Spastic paraplegia 76, AR (CAPN1)
  • Spastic paraplegia 79, AR (UCHL1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 28 (AFG3L2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 44 (GRM1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 48 (STUB1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 5 (SPTBN2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 10 (ANO10)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 11 (SYT4)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 12 (WWOX)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 13 (GRM1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 14 (SPTBN2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 16 (STUB1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 17 (CWF19L)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 18 (GRID2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 2 (PMPCA)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 20 (SNX14)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 21 (SCYL1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 22 (VWA3B)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 23 (TDP2)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 24 (UBA5)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 4 (VPS13D)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 5 (WDR73)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 7 (TPP1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR 8 (SYNE1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR, infantile onset, IOSCA (TWNK)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR, with axonal neuropathy 1 (TDP1)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR, with axonal neuropathy 2 (SETX)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, AR, with axonal neuropathy 3 (COA7)
  • Tay-Sachs disease (HEXA)
  • Wilson disease (ATP7B)
  • Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1)
  • Wolfram-like syndrome, AD (WFS1)
Heredity, heredity patterns etc.
  • AD
  • AR
  • Ass
OMIM-Ps
  • Multiple OMIM-Ps
ICD10 Code
G11.-

Bioinformatics and clinical interpretation

No text defined